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Thesis defense by Elgiz Baskaya on Fault diagnosis for drones

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Our member Elgiz Baskaya will defend her thesis on 16/05/2019 at 10:00 am in room G11 in ENAC. We welcome you all.

Titre : ‘Fault detection and diagnosis for drones using machine learning’

Resume :

This new era of small UAVs currently populating the airspace introduces many safety concerns, due to the absence of a pilot onboard and the less accurate nature of the sensors. This necessitates intelligent approaches to address the emergency situations that will inevitably arise for all classes of UAV operations as defined by EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency). Hardware limitations for these small vehicles point to the utilization of analytical redundancy, rather than to the usual practice of hardware redundancy in manned aviation. In the course of this study, machine learning practices are implemented in order to diagnose faults on a small fixed-wing UAV to avoid the burden of accurate modeling needed in model-based fault diagnosis. A supervised classification method, SVM (Support Vector Machines) is used to classify the faults. The data used to diagnose the faults are gyro and accelerometer measurements. The idea to restrict the data set to accelerometer and gyro measurements is to check the method’s classification ability, with a small and inexpensive chip set and without the need to access the data from the autopilot, such as the control input information.

This work addresses the faults in the control surfaces of a UAV. More specifically, the faults considered are the control surface stuck at an angle and the loss of effectiveness. First, a model of an aircraft is simulated. This model is not used for the design of Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) algorithms, but is instead utilized to generate data. Simulated data are used instead of flight data in order to isolate the probable effects of the controller on the diagnosis, which may complicate a preliminary study on FDD for drones. The results show that for simulated measurements, SVM gives very accurate results on the classification of the loss of effectiveness faults on the control surfaces. These promising results call for further investigation so as to assess SVM performance on fault classification with flight data. Real flights were arranged to generate faulty flight data by manipulating the open source autopilot, Paparazzi. All data and the code are available in the code sharing and versioning system, Github. Training is held offline due to the need for labeled data and the computational burden of the tuning phase of the classifiers. Results show that from the flight data, SVM yields an F1 score of 0.98 for the classification of control surface stuck faults. For the loss of efficiency faults, some feature engineering, involving the addition of past measurements is needed in order to attain the same classification performance. A promising result is discovered when spinors are used as features instead of angular velocities. Results show that by using spinors for classification, there is a vast improvement in classification accuracy, especially when the classifiers are untuned. Using spinors and a Gaussian Kernel, an untuned classifier gives an F1 score of 0.9555, which was 0.2712 when gyro measurements were used as features. In summary, this work shows that SVM gives a satisfactory performance for the classification of faults on the control surfaces of a drone using flight data.

Jury members:

– Prof. Dr. Daniel Delahaye
– Asc. Prof. Dr. Murat Bronz
– Prof. Dr. Eric Feron
– Prof. Dr. Chingiz Hajiyev
– Asc. Prof. Philippe Truillet
– Asc. Prof. Janset Dasdemir

ENAC to host the 56th EUROCAE Symposium on the 25th and 26th April

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The European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) brings together stakeholders in the field of civil aviation with a view to establishing rules for the standardization of aeronautical systems at European and global level.

ENAC is an active member of EUROCAE, and has been supporting the European standardization activity for many years, actively participating in EUROCAE working groups and disseminating information on standards at the international level. Among the 266 EUROCAE members, from more than 37 countries, we count: manufacturers (aircraft, air and ground-based equipment, ATM systems); air service providers; national civil aviation authorities, and users (airlines, airport operators, other operators). EUROCAE works closely with the RTCA in the United States to ensure global harmonization of standards.
The conference that will take place at ENAC will cover the following areas:
– Trends for new vehicles and autonomy
– Connectivity and digital services
– Benefits and potential of ATM digital solutions
– Airport developments
– Innovations of avionics systems
– Provision of satellite services.

For information on the Symposium, please see https://www.eurocae.net/events/eurocae-symposium-
2019/ . Students and staff of ENAC are welcome and encouraged to participate. To participate, all you have to do is register. Online registration is free and mandatory before 17/04 at https://eurocae.typeform.com/to/wlZIoN .

Enquête : Quelle maîtrise des drones civils dans l’espace aérien français ?

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Nous avons reçu récemment Maud CAZABET et Marine CLETTE, étudiantes à l’École de journalisme de Toulouse, au sein de notre laboratoire Drones à l’ENAC. Maud et Marine souhaitaient rédiger un article sur l’intégration des drones dans l’espace aérien, et nous avons répondu à certaines de leurs interrogations. Ci dessous, le fruit de leur travail, qui constitue une excellente synthèse quant à la situation actuelle.

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Yannick Jestin -WAC 2019 Madrid

VIDEO – World ATC Congress : highlight on the Drone Systems Chair

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The Chair presented its scientific work at the World ATM Congress in Madrid on March 12-14th, 2019, as part of the World ATC Congress. The conference, entitled “The ENAC – Groupe ADP – Sopra Seria research Chair on drone systems: a new way to explore drones integration into airspace” was presented by the Chairholder Yannick Jestin. The Chair was also presented throughout the exhibition on the ENAC – DSNA booth.

Read the abstract of the conference here >>>

WAC Madrid 2019

The Chair will be present at the World ATM Congress 2019 in Madrid

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The Chair will present its scientific work at the World ATM Congress in Madrid, as part of the World ATC Congress. This presentation will take place on March 12, 2019 at 2:20 p.m. in the Tower Theatre. The conference, entitled “The ENAC – Groupe ADP – Sopra Seria research Chair on drone systems: a new way to explore drones integration into airspace” will be presented by the Chairholder Yannick Jestin. The Chair will also be presented throughout the exhibition on the ENAC – DSNA booth (n°480).

Presentation abstract :

“In the world of Unmanned Air Systems (UAS), the future is almost here; but it can, and must, be shaped still, by working on both the vehicles themselves and the organization of the airspace in which they will be deployed. Added to that, new trends keep emerging, pulling the future in different possible directions (Urban Air Mobility, driverless personal air vehicles …).

A study of ongoing efforts to shape the future of UAS shows that these efforts are almost always divided in two categories moving in parallel: work on the vehicle (trying to increase its Technology Readiness Level: its size, endurance, autonomy level, improve its software’s assurance level …); and work on the concept of operations (EASA, EUROCONTROL, SESAR …).

The Ecole Nationale de l’Aviation Civile (ENAC) – Groupe ADP – Sopra Steria Research Chair on Drone Systems is helping to bridge that gap, by providing inputs for both vehicle technology and the environment in which they operate.

The Chair has a three-year-old background in Detect And Avoid and fault detection and management. Embedded in the ENAC’s Research Lab on Small UAS, it benefits from an environment rich in skill and testing facilities, providing research on topics such as Vertical Take Off and Landing fixed wing aircraft. Added to that, the Chair works on the development of UAS operations within the airport environment, for example for the inspection of radio navigation systems.

As a result of this approach mixing both vehicle and environment, the Chair contributes to building some of the blocks of U-space.”

More info on the new Chair’s leaflet >>>

Before TCAS, there was none; now there are many

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The introduction of new CASs results in a multiplication of the number of different systems in the airspace. And this is not without consequences. During ACAS Xa integration tests, though the coordination was working perfectly, it was noted that the performances of TCAS were degraded. This highlighted the fact that CASs need not only to be able to coordinate but they also need to be interoperable.

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